P.O. Box 700
North Bend, WA 98045
   Meetings and events.
  Elk Group Library
   Maps, meeting minutes, etc.
  For the Classroom
   Lesson Plans, reading lists.
  Volunteer Projects
   Descriptions, sign-up info.
  Forms to Print
   Timesheets, waviers, etc.
   Contacts & donations.
  About the Elk Group
   Our mission, who we are.
These are shortcuts to documents by category.
Initial Guiding Document   USVEMG, 4 pages, 74KB, Nov. 2008.
Federal Non-Profit Authorization   IRS, 2 pages 150KB, Sept. 2009.
USVEMG Bylaws   May 2011.

2014 General Meeting Minutes and Committee Reports

July 17, 2014

Unapproved Minutes  Bylaw Changes

May 19, 2014

Approved Minutes  Annual Elections
February 17, 2014 Approved Minutes  2014 Proposed Budget
2013 General Meeting Minutes and Committee Reports
November 18, 2013 Approved Minutes  Presidential Election
June 17, 2013 Approved Minutes  Auditor Report Postponed
March 18, 2013 Approved Minutes  Auditor Appointed
January 21, 2013 Approved Minutes  2013 Budget Approved
2012 General Meeting Minutes and Committee Reports
November 19, 2012 Approved Minutes  EMG President Re-elected
July 16, 2012 Approved Minutes  Election Results
March 14&19, 2012 Approved Minutes  2012 Budget Approved
January 11, 2012 Approved Minutes  REMF Grant
2011 General Meeting Minutes and Committee Reports
November 9, 2011 Approved Minutes  WDFW Permits & WDFW Law Enforcement
September 21, 2011 Approved Minutes  USVEMG President Elected
July 13, 2011 Approved Minutes  WGD A Success, Booth, Festival at Mt. Si
June 20, 2011 Committee Report  Elk Research and Management
May 11, 2011 Approved Minutes  Elections, Wild Game Dinner
March 9, 2011 Approved Minutes  Lower valley elk, Wild Game Dinner
January 12, 2011 Approved Minutes  Centennial Fields damage, LWCF Grant
2010 General Meeting Minutes and Committee Reports
November 17, 2010 Approved Minutes  Next season quotas, Tulalip donation authorized
October 13, 2010 Approved Minutes  Brian Kertson's Cougar Study Presentation
September 22, 2010 Approved Minutes  ArcGIS needs, assisting general season permittees
August 11, 2010 Approved Minutes  Telemetry waiver revised, wildlife corridor discussion
August 3, 2010 Committee Report  People and Land Management Committee - Kiosk Text
July 14, 2010 Approved Minutes  Research Committee Annual Report
June 9, 2010 Approved Minutes  Andy Duff's GIS Data Analysis Presentation
May 12, 2010 Approved Minutes  Kristen Winter's thesis, "Developing Wildife Models"
April 14, 2010 Approved Minutes  Authorization for habitat, accounting expenses
March 10, 2010 Approved Minutes  Budget committee formed, CCC Flats committee formed
February 23, 2010 Committee Report  Second Middle Fork Elk Habitat Improvement Plan Meeting
February 18, 2010 Committee Report  First Middle Fork Elk Habitat Improvement Plan Meeting
February 10, 2010 Approved Minutes  2010 budget discussed, audit committee formed
January 13, 2010 Approved Minutes  Time reporting process, VHF collars ordered
2009 General Meeting Minutes and Committee Reports
November 18, 2009 Approved Minutes  Volunteer checklist, gray wolf discussion
October 14, 2009 Approved Minutes  GIS discussion, non-profit status confirmed
September 23, 2009 Approved Minutes  Request for speed study
August 12, 2009 Approved Minutes  Tulalip projects, Watchable Wildlife, wildlife bridges
July 8, 2009 Approved Minutes  A.L.P.S. Presentation, non-profit authorized
June 10, 2009 Approved Minutes  Bylaws approved, officers elected
May 13, 2009 Approved Minutes  Articles of incorporation approved
April 9, 2009 Approved Minutes  Collaring underway, bylaws refined
March 11, 2009 Approved Minutes  Scientific colletion permit endorsed, officers nominated
February 10, 2009 Approved Minutes  Status of mapping, SHA 4601 quotas
January 19, 2009 Committee Report  Elk Management Committee
January 16, 2009 Approved Minutes  Approved Stakeholder List
January 15, 2009 Committee Report  Education and Outreach Committee
2008 General Meeting Minutes and Committee Reports
November 20, 2008 Approved Minutes  Sixth meeting: Voting scheme, first committee reports
October 8, 2008 Approved Minutes  Fifth meeting: Mission refinement, voting scheme
September 10, 2008 Approved Minutes  Fourth meeting: Elk damage management options
August 13, 2008 Approved Minutes  Third meeting: Committees, group structure
July 15, 2008 Approved Minutes  Second meeting: Ground rules, name, mission
June 17, 2008 Approved Minutes  First meeting: Problems with elk

2012 Bulletins and Press Releases
February 5, 2012 Bulletin   Newly Elected President
2011 Bulletins and Press Releases
August 10, 2011 Bulletin   Frequently Asked Elk Questions
June 28, 2011 Bulletin   Fundraiser and Survey Results
May 18, 2011 Bulletin   Fundraiser, Volunteers Recognized
May 5, 2011 Bulletin   Fence Repair, May General Meeting
April 8, 2011 Bulletin   Annual Elk Count
January 10, 2011 Bulletin   Snow storm, Audit committee nominations
2010 Bulletins and Press Releases
December 6, 2010 Bulletin   "Wondering about Wildlife" Event
November 5, 2010 Bulletin   Recommendations for 2011 Elk Hunting Season Quotas
October 6, 2010 Bulletin   Brian Kertson's Local Cougar Study
September 9, 2010 Bulletin   Handling Poachers
August 9, 2010 Bulletin   Festival Plans, Identifying Ear-Tagged Elk
July 14, 2010 Bulletin   Collaring Resumes July 15
May 28, 2010 Bulletin   Summer schedule, GIS analysis, and ethics discussion
May 6, 2010 Bulletin   Monitoring elk, road safety, elections on May 12
April 3, 2010 Bulletin   Initial Planting and April Meeting Schedule
March 1, 2010 Bulletin   Meetings and Elk Group events in March
February 14, 2010 Bulletin   Telemetry Classes, Elk Habitat Improvement Plan
2009 Bulletins and Press Releases
December 22, 2009 Bulletin   December Bulletin and January Meeting Schedule
April 12, 2009 Press Release   Radio-Collared Elk Study in the Upper Snoqualmie Valley

Field Guides
Field Reference for the Snoqualmie Valley Ear-tagged Elk   Willson, USVEMG, 1 page, 20KB, Apr. 2011.
CCC Flats Elk Habitat Improvement Site   Willson, USVEMG, 1 page, 503KB, Feb. 2010.
Elk Area 4601 (North Bend), 2010   WDFW, 2 pages, 4.85MB, July 2010.
Elk Area 4601 (North Bend), 2009 - Obsolete   WDFW, 1 page, 1.66MB, May 2008.
Elk Survey Project: East Transect Area   Willson, USVEMG, 1 page, 83KB, Jan. 2009.
Elk Survey Project: West Transect Area   Willson, USVEMG, 1 page, 85KB, Jan. 2009.
Game Management Unit 460 (Snoqualmie), 2008-09   WDFW, 1 page, 6.03MB, May 2008.
Local King County No Shooting Zones   Willson, 1 page, 100KB, Oct. 2010.
Meadowbrook Farm   WDFW, 1 page, 3.30MB, 2009.
Driving Directions
Meadowbrook Farm Interpretive Center   Willson, USVEMG, 1 page, 270KB, Jan. 2010.
North Bend City Hall   Willson, USVEMG, 1 page, 270KB, Jan. 2010.
North Bend City Hall Annex   Willson, USVEMG, 1 page, 270KB, Jan. 2010.
North Bend Library   Willson, USVEMG, 1 page, 270KB, Jan. 2010.
North Bend Ranger Station Conference Room   Willson, USVEMG, 1 page, 270KB, Jan. 2010.
Starbucks, Mt. Si Blvd., North Bend   Willson, USVEMG, 1 page, 270KB, Jan. 2010.
North Rainier Herd
USVEMG Collection Plan, 2009-10   Erland, USVEMG, 3 pages, 9.36KB, Feb. 2009.
Community Survey on Elk Management   Willson, USVEMG, 6 pages, 214KB, June 2011.
Department of Fish and Wildlife
Policy 5302: Feeding Wildlife During the Winter   WDFW, 3 pages, 60KB, July 2008.

Article I - Name
1.1 The name of the Corporation is the Upper Snoqualmie Valley Elk Management Group, hereinafter referred to as the "USVEMG," or "Group."

  Article II - Mission and Goals
2.1 The mission of the USVEMG is to work collaboratively to minimize property damage and public safety risks associated with the Snoqualmie Valley elk sub-herds of the North Rainier Elk Herd, and to manage these elk for a variety of recreational, educational and aesthetic purposes including hunting, scientific study, cultural and ceremonial uses by Native Americans, wildlife viewing and photography.
2.2 The USVEMG is organized exclusively for charitable, educational and scientific research purposes within the meaning of Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. It has established several coequal goals to accomplish its mission.
2.2.1 Goal: Conduct research on the local elk herd and coordinate with State and Point Elliot Treaty Indian Tribes' wildlife agencies which have concurrent jurisdiction in the study area, to develop an adaptable, sustainable long-term elk management plan for the Upper Snoqualmie Valley.
2.2.2 Goal: Record agricultural and personal property damage, combine it with other elk research data, and develop strategies and programs to reduce elk depredation and the number of elk/motor vehicle accidents.
2.2.3 Goal: Educate the public, its elected officials, and its members about the local elk herd. The results of these studies and research will be widely shared with the public, and USVEMG stakeholders. Elected officials will be provided information which may be used to enhance public safety, zoning and land use decisions. Other public awareness initiatives will target educators, teachers and students to inform them of the needs of elk in our area and how humans can minimize conflict with them and learn to live with wildlife.
2.2.4 Goal: Encourage property owners and land managers to work together to improve winter habitat for elk which is outside the valley floor and rural cities boundaries. Partnerships with individual landowners, commercial forest entities, Washington Department of Natural Resources, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, U.S. Forest Service and the Indian Tribes are envisioned and may contribute to improved habitat conditions.
2.2.5 Goal: Improve public safety by reducing the frequency of life threatening elk/vehicle collisions and elk/human conflicts. The USVEMG's elk research analysis will assist state, county, and cities to identify locations where elk and vehicles may be more likely to collide. Likewise, elk/human conflicts will be analyzed. Appropriate precautionary measures may then be planned and implemented.
2.3 In order to accomplish the foregoing goals, the Group will do any and all lawful activities which may be necessary, useful, or desirable for the furtherance, accomplishment, or attainment of the foregoing goals, either directly or indirectly and either alone or in conjunction or cooperation with others, whether such other be persons or organizations of any kind or nature, such as corporations, firms, associations, trusts, institutions, foundations, or government bureaus, departments or agencies.
2.4 Notwithstanding any other provisions of these articles, this Group shall not engage in any activities or exercise any powers not in furtherance of Section 501(c)(3) purposes.

  Article III - Members
3.1 Classes of membership shall be active, inactive, and honorary. All active members have paid their dues and are thus entitled to vote in meetings and committee activities. Inactive members are those who have not paid their current dues and are no longer entitled to vote. Honorary members are nominated from the "Group as a whole," approved by the Board and pay no dues.
3.2 Membership is open to all interested persons who pay the annual dues of $10 or purchase tiered annual memberships at rates established by the Board where the amount in excess of $10 is deemed a donation, or life membership. Life memberships are effective for life and cost $250.
3.3 Official representatives of governmental entities or Indian Tribes are members without a dues assessment. Membership runs for a calendar year from the date of dues payment. Non-members may attend meetings of the "Group as a whole," but only as observers. They enjoy no right to recognition by the President, or Presiding Officer.

  Article IV - Meetings
4.1 At least six meetings of the Group shall be held per year, open to all wishing to attend, and governed by the bylaws and conducted using the most current version of Robert's Rules of Order.
4.2 Both Officers and BOD members are voting members of the Group and shall collectively be known as the "Board." A simple majority of the Board's (14) voting members, shall constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise specified, the vote of the majority present at a regular or special meeting shall constitute the will of the Group.
4.3 The President may call special meetings of the Board but must give at least three days advance notice before the meeting date. The BOD may request that special meetings be scheduled. Emergency or very urgent actions may be approved via telephone or emails; however, they must be formalized and entered into the record at the next special or regular meeting.
4.4 Members of the Board, or any properly designated committee, may participate in a meeting by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment. All persons participating in the meeting must be able to hear each other at the same time. Similarly, such meetings may be held via the Internet wherein video and voice may be simultaneously seen and heard by participants. Participation by such means shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

  Article V - Leadership Organization
5.1 The business, operation, and affairs of the Group shall be managed and controlled by the Board, As stated in paragraph 4.2 above, the Board consists of the officers and Board of Directors. All are volunteers and work without pay of any kind, or in kind.

  Article VI - Board of Directors
6.1 The Board of Directors (BOD) shall consist of not more than ten group members. See Attachment 1: "Board of Directors" for a listing of authorized BOD positions. The BOD is authorized to appoint ex-officio members to the BOD; however, these members do not have voting privileges. Ex-officio members are usually representatives of a governmental entity or interest group and are listed in Attachment 1.
6.2 The regular term of office for all BOD members shall be one year, unless earlier terminated by affirmative vote of two-thirds of the Board. There are no term limits.
6.3 Vacancies in the BOD will be nominated by the agency or interest group and confirmed by a majority vote of the BOD. A new member, thus elected, shall serve the remaining term of his/her predecessor and then may stand for election to a one year term. Citizens at large may be nominated by the members.

  Article VII - Members
7.1 Officer positions include President, Vice President, Secretary, and Treasurer. Terms will be for one year, except the Treasurer who will serve a two year term. Election of the nominee will be by majority vote of the Board. There are no term limits. Officers may be nominated from the "Group as a whole." An officer may not fill two positions, thus if a BOD member is elected to be an officer, he/she must vacate their BOD position and vice versa. Officer's primary functions are:
7.1.1 Plan, schedule, and conduct regular meetings of the Group. Prepare agendas for all meetings of the "Group as a whole" and the Board.
7.1.2 Record minutes of meetings and all votes and disseminate to the Group. Maintain correspondence and computer files of the Group.
7.1.3 Control and record all financial transactions of the Group.
7.1.4 Participate in all discussions of the Board and vote.
7.1.5 The President shall create and direct and administrative "Program and Budget Committee" to prepare a proposed three-year program and annual budget for the Corporation. The program and the budget shall be approved each year by the Board.
7.1.6 Coordinate Group activities with all stakeholders and regularly communicate USVEMG's activities to local communities, elected officials, and community leaders.

  Article VIII - Committees
8.1 The group shall have a minimum of three operational committees. These shall be an Elk Research and Management Committee, a Public Awareness, Outreach and Education Committee, and a Land and People Management Committee. Committee chairpersons will be selected by popular vote of committee volunteers. Committees shall conduct activities consistent with their assigned functions and make recommendations to the Board when actions are required that impact resources, policy guidance, and external committee coordination. They shall report to the Board monthly on past, current, and future activities. The committees may create subcommittees.
8.1.1 Elk Research and Management Committee functions are: Conduct and facilitate basic research on the Snoqualmie Valley elk sub-herd. Document and track elk damage issues, and assess non-lethal and lethal means of managing elk population size. Recommend elk harvest options and mechanisms to assure public safety during hunting season and special hunts. Assist with the development of a sustainable, adaptable long-term elk management plan.
8.1.2 Public Awareness, Outreach and Education Committee functions are: Create outreach materials and press releases to make reasonably sure all interested individuals have the opportunity to be involved in the process. Help the community understand elk management concepts/efforts and that management of the elk in the valley is a community responsibility. Work with the local schools and organizations to involve faculty, students and interested individuals in the process of elk management. Create and maintain a website, with the goal of providing objective and unbiased information to its members and the public. Assist with the development of a sustainable, adaptable long-term elk management plan.
8.1.3 Land and People Management Committee functions are: Review elk/land use issues and make recommendations regarding them to city, county, and relevant state and federal agencies including the following: Collect and analyze land use information regarding appropriate locations for elk habitat enhancement in areas away from primary human settlement to draw elk out of the Snoqualmie Valley where the majority of elk damage and conflicts with humans is occurring. Use elk habitat and migration information, as generated through the research coordinated by the Elk Research and Management Committee and other sources, to provide recommendations on essential elk migration and habitat corridors through urbanized areas. Collect information on and map all known incidents of elk/vehicle collisions over the past five years and annually thereafter; integrate with other research data and provide to state, county, and cities to use in assessing zoning considerations and safety needs. Describe and document negative impacts to recreation (e.g. sports fields, golf courses, and public trails) that elk may create in the area and provide recommendations for addressing such impacts. Describe and pursue benefits (e.g. elk viewing, tourism) that elk may bring to the area and participate with community organizations to enhance these benefits. Assess public perspectives concerning the valley elk herd and management options. Assist with the development of a sustainable, adaptable long-term elk management plan.

  Article IX - Financial Provisions
9.1 Investment and Distribution. The Group shall have the right to retain all or any part of securities or property--real or personal, tangible or intangible--acquired by it or donated to it and to invest or reinvest any funds held by it according to the judgment of the Board. However, no action shall be taken by or on behalf of the Group if such an action is a prohibited transaction or would result in the denial or revocation of a tax exemption under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations promulgated as a result.
9.2 Signing Financial Documents. All checks, drafts, or other orders for payment of money or evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of the Group shall be signed by the treasurer, unless incapacitated, or unavailable for two weeks or more, in which case, and an alternate officer and a designated Board member may sign. Checks or instruments for more than $200 will always be signed by two authorized members, one of which must be the president or treasurer.
9.3 Expenditures may not exceed income, except where they are guaranteed via a reimbursement agreement. All expenditures must be authorized by the budget or approved on a case by case basis by the Board. Authorization for expenditures must be documented in the minutes of the meeting wherein authorized.
9.4 Deposits. Funds of the Group shall be deposited in a timely manner in a financial institution as the Board may select. The Group's financial records and checkbook shall be the daily responsibility of the Treasurer; however, the Group's financial records must be audited each year in January by a special audit committee appointed by the Board. This committee will report audit results to the Board in February of each year.
9.5 The Board may accept on behalf of the Group a contribution, gift, grant, or device for the general purposes or for any special purpose of the Group.

  Article X - Administration
10.1 Any or all of these bylaws may be altered, amended, repealed, or suspended by a two-thirds majority vote of the Board members at any regular or special meeting; however, said changes must be presented to the Board at two different meetings, before enacted. Proposed changes to the bylaws must be provided to the Board five days prior to any meeting to discuss or consider them.
10.2 These Bylaws were adopted by a two-thirds majority vote of the USVEMG Voting Stakeholders on June 10, 2009. Future changes must be approved by a two-thirds majority vote of the Board.

  Attachment 1 - Board of Directors
Voting Director Roles
Agricultural Land Owners
Citizen at Large Position 1
Citizen at Large Position 2
Commercial, Non-agricultural Land Owners
Meadowbrook Farm Presevation Association
Small Property Owners
Timber Land Owners
Wildlife Advocate
Non-Voting Advisory Roles
City of North Bend
City of Snoqualmie
City of North Bend
King County Parks Division
King County Sherrif's Office
King County Water and Land Resources
Mountains to Sound Greenway Trust
Muckleshoot Tribe
Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation
Snoqualmie Tribe
Tulalip Tribe
United States Forest Service
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
Washington Department of Natural Resources
Washington Department of Transporation


Aquatic Lands Enhancement Account.  The ALEA Volunteer Cooperative Grant Program provides monetary support for qualifying organizations and individuals who utilize volunteers to undertake projects that are beneficial to the fish and wildlife resources of Washington State. [6,WDFW]

A plant that completes its life cycle from seedling to mature seed-bearing plant during a single growing season. [3,Hawthorne]

Fast-growing bone that is shed each year; grown by male memebers of the deer family and also by female caribou. [1,Duckworth]

A plant that lives for two growing seasons, producing leaves during the first season, flowers and seeds during the second. [3,Hawthorne]

  big game
A term for large species of wild animals, birds, or fish hunted for food or sport. [3,Hawthorne]

Variety of life forms in a given area. [1,Duckworth]

A large geographic area with somewhat uniform climatic conditions; a complex of communities characterized by a distinctive type of vegetation and maintained under the climatic conditions of the region. [3,Hawthorne]

  Blue Hole
Deep eddy on the Middle Fork Snoqualmie River in the vicinity of the east end of Northeast Sixth Street in North Bend (S.E. 114 Street, King County) characterized by steep cliffs river-right impacted by the main current. [Willson]

1. noun Parts of woody plants.
2. verb To eat parts of woody plants. [1,Duckworth]

Bellowing sound made by bull elk during rut. [1,Duckworth]

Layer formed by the leaves and branches of the forest's tallest trees. [3,Hawthorne]

  carrying capacity
The maximum number of individuals or inhabitants that a given environment can support without detrimental effects. [3,Hawthorne]

  CCC Flats
Plateau within the canyon and on the north side of the Middle Fork Snoqulamie River east of the end of Mount Si Road. [Willson]

Scientific name for the deer family. [1,Duckworth]

  Cervus elaphus
Scientific name for elk genus and species. [1,Duckworth]

The final stage of plant or animal succession; when environmental conditions have been stable long enough for an area to develop a semi-permanent biome. [3,Hawthorne]

  clover trap
An inexpensively constructed, baited trap with a collapsible feature which allows restraint of elk with a small field crew, and without use of drugs or hobbles.  The trap is named for M. R. Clover who wrote about the design in an article published by California Fish and Game in 1956. [5,Thompson]

The use of natural resources in a way that ensures their continuing availability to future generations; the wise or intelligent use or protection of natural resources. [3,Hawthorne]

  conservation easement
Purchased development right to a property. The owner continues to own the property and can continue to use it for agriculture, but can never develop it or change it to a higher density zoning. [3,Hawthorne]

The vegetation, debris, and irregularities of the land that provide concealment, sleeping, feeding, and breeding areas for wildlife. [3,Hawthorne]

  cultural carrying capacity
The largest number of a wildlife species that humans will tolerate in their community. [3,Hawthorne]

Study of interrelationships between living organisms and their environment. [1,Duckworth]

Natural unit of living things and their environment linked together by energy and nutrient flow. [1,Duckworth]

Vegetation eaten by herbivores. [1,Duckworth]

Low-growing, soft-stemmed plants. [1,Duckworth]

To eat grass. [1,Duckworth]

  guard hairs
Long, coarse hairs that protect undercoat. [1,Duckworth]

Food, water, shelter, and space that an animal requires. [1,Duckworth]

Group of elk during rut, usually consisting of cows, calves, and one mature bull. [1,Duckworth]

Animal that eats plants. [1,Duckworth]

  home range
The area where an animal travels in the scope of normal activities. [3,Hawthorne]

A person or animal who is in search of wildlife. [3,Hawthorne]

The act of a person or animal who hunts. [3,Hawthorne]

  hunting pressure
The numbers, amount, or concentration of hunters in a specific area and upon a specific animal. [3,Hawthorne]

A naturally occurring species. [3,Hawthorne]

  limiting factors
Influences in the life history of any animal, population of animals, or species (e.g., food, water, shelter, space, disease, predation, climatic conditions, pollution, hunting, poaching, and accidents). [3,Hawthorne]

  Lincoln-Petersen method
The Lincoln-Petersen method can be used to estimate population size if only two visits are made to the study area. This method assumes that the study population is "closed." In other words, the two visits to the study area are close enough in time so that no individuals die, are born, move into the study area (immigrate) or move out of the study area (emigrate) between visits. The model also assumes that no marks fall off animals between visits to the field site by the researcher, and that the researcher correctly records all marks. [4,Seber]

Given those conditions, estimated population size is:

N = (M C) / R


N = Estimate of total population size
M = Total number of animals captured and marked on the first visit
C = Total number of animals captured on the second visit
R = Number of animals captured on the first visit that were then recaptured on the second visit

Any of a group of animals in which the females have milk-secreting glands for feeding their offspring. [1,Duckworth]

  master hunter
A participant in the Master Hunter Permit Program.

The Master Hunter Permit Program is designed to promote responsible hunting. In addition to training, the program emphasizes safe, lawful and ethical hunting priorities while upholding the highest standards. The program offers an opportunity for conscientious, committed hunters who care about the future of hunting to assume a leadership role among their peers. Through their knowledge and conduct in the field, Master Hunters play a key role in improving relationships with landowners, thus ensuring continued hunter access to private lands. [7,WDFW]

Travelling in seasonal movements. [1,Duckworth]

The raising of a crop of a single species, generally even-aged. [3,Hawthorne]

  mortality rate
The death rate; usually expressed in deaths per thousand. [3,Hawthorne]

Related to birth or being born. [3,Hawthorne]

The function or position of an organism or a population within an ecological community. [3,Hawthorne]

  nitrogen fixation
The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into organic compounds or to forms readily usable in biological processes. [3,Hawthorne]

An animal which eats both plant and animal materials. [3,Hawthorne]

  pellet groups
Incidents of fecal material groups most commonly used as a form of measurements relating to deer and elk densities. [Erland]

A plant that lives for several years and usually produces seeds each year. [3,Hawthorne]

Someone who kills animals illegally or steals resources such as antlers. [1,Duckworth]

Animal that kills and eats other animals. [1,Duckworth]

Protection that emphasizes nonconsumptive values and uses; to keep in a perfect or unaltered condition. [3,Hawthorne]

Animals that are killed and eaten by other animals. [1,Duckworth]

  resident wildlife
Animals that are residents of a specific area on a year-round basis as opposed to being migratory. [3,Hawthorne]

Portion of an environment available for use by an organism. [1,Duckworth]

Located or relating to the banks of a stream, river, or other body of water. [3,Hawthorne]

Ungulate having a multi-chambered stomach that digests plant fibers. [1,Duckworth]

Mating season for elk. [1,Duckworth]

Fecal material. [3,Hawthorne]

The sequence of an ecological community successively occupying an area from initial stage to climax. [3,Hawthorne]

Cover for natal activity or bedding and protection from weather. [3,Hawthorne]

Related to the environment, the concept of responsible caretaking; uses the premise that we do not own resources but are managers of resources and are responsible to future generations for their condition. [3,Hawthorne]

The orderly, gradual, and continuous replacement of one plant or animal by another. [3,Hawthorne]

Maintaining resources in such a way to be able to renew themselves over time or to keep in existence and supply with necessities. [3,Hawthorne]

A line for ecological measurements. [Erland]

  Treaty of Point Elliot
Treaty between the United States and the tribes of the western slopes of the Cascade Range from the Canadian Border to Mount Rainier signed January 22, 1855. [2,GOIA]

By signing the treaty the tribes retained those rights that they have possessed since time immemorial. Only tribal members may exercise treaty hunting rights. Treaty rights must be exercised in accordance with tribal regulations. The courts have created a narrow exception to the general rule that state regulation of tribal treaty hunters is preempted by the treaties. This exception applies in situations where the state is regulating the fishing or hunting of a particular species in order to conserve that species. [8,WDFW]

  treaty tribes
The tribes named in the Treaty of Point Elliot. These tribes include the Muckleshoot, Tulalip, Stillaguamish, Swinomish, Nooksack, Suquamish, Sauk Suiattle, Upper Skagit, and Lummi. [2,GOIA]

  Truck Town
Commercial zone on the north side of and adjacent to Exit 34 on Interstate 90. [Willson]

The layer of plants growing under another higher layer of plants. [3,Hawthorne]

Mammal with hooves. [1,Duckworth]

Skin that covers antlers as they grow. [1,Duckworth]

Shawnee name for elk, meaning "white rump." [1,Duckworth]

  wildlife management
Application of scientific knowledge and technical skills to protect, preserve, conserve, limit, enhance, or extend the value of wildlife and its habitat. [1,Duckworth]

  yard up
To gather in a sheltered area in winter; used typically in reference to deer, moose, and so forth. [3,Hawthorne]

  zero population growth
Sustaining population numbers at a fixed level so as to prevent increase. [3,Hawthorne]

1. Duckworth, Carolyn.  Wild About Elk: An Educator's Guide. Bethesda, Maryland: Council for Environmental Education and the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, 1994.
2. Governor's Office of Indian Affairs.  Point Elliot Treaty of 1855, January 2010.
3. Hawthorne, Josetta et al.  Project Wild, K-12 Curriculum & Activity Guide. Houston, Texas: Council for Environmental Education, 2007.
4. Seber, G.A.F.. The Estimation of Animal Abundance and Related Parameters. Caldwel, New Jersey: Blackburn Press.
5. Thompson, M. J., et al.  Evaluation of a Collapsible Clover Trap for Elk. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:287-290, 1989.
6. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.  ALEA Volunteer Cooperative Grant Program, January 2010.
7. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.  Master Hunter Permit Program, January 2010.
8. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.  Treaty History and Interpretation, January 2010.
Nursing calf  Joe Merclich.
Bull elk in the snow  Dave Battey.
Full moon over McClellan  David Willson.
Collared elk and calf  Tom Kemp.
Elk in the brush  David Willson.
First antlers  Joe Merclich.
Sunlight on meadow  David Willson.