Aquatic Lands Enhancement Account. The ALEA Volunteer Cooperative Grant Program provides monetary support for qualifying organizations and individuals who utilize volunteers to undertake projects that are beneficial to the fish and wildlife resources of Washington State. [6,WDFW]

A plant that completes its life cycle from seedling to mature seed-bearing plant during a single growing season. [3,Hawthorne]

Fast-growing bone that is shed each year; grown by male memebers of the deer family and also by female caribou. [1,Duckworth]

A plant that lives for two growing seasons, producing leaves during the first season, flowers and seeds during the second. [3,Hawthorne]

big game
A term for large species of wild animals, birds, or fish hunted for food or sport. [3,Hawthorne]

Variety of life forms in a given area. [1,Duckworth]

A large geographic area with somewhat uniform climatic conditions; a complex of communities characterized by a distinctive type of vegetation and maintained under the climatic conditions of the region. [3,Hawthorne]

Blue Hole
Deep eddy on the Middle Fork Snoqualmie River in the vicinity of the east end of Northeast Sixth Street in North Bend (S.E. 114 Street, King County) characterized by steep cliffs river-right impacted by the main current. [Willson]

1. noun Parts of woody plants.
2. verb To eat parts of woody plants. [1,Duckworth]

Bellowing sound made by bull elk during rut. [1,Duckworth]

Layer formed by the leaves and branches of the forest's tallest trees. [3,Hawthorne]

carrying capacity
The maximum number of individuals or inhabitants that a given environment can support without detrimental effects. [3,Hawthorne]

CCC Flats
Plateau within the canyon and on the north side of the Middle Fork Snoqulamie River east of the end of Mount Si Road. [Willson]

Scientific name for the deer family. [1,Duckworth]

Cervus elaphus
Scientific name for elk genus and species. [1,Duckworth]

The final stage of plant or animal succession; when environmental conditions have been stable long enough for an area to develop a semi-permanent biome. [3,Hawthorne]

clover trap
An inexpensively constructed, baited trap with a collapsible feature which allows restraint of elk with a small field crew, and without use of drugs or hobbles. The trap is named for M. R. Clover who wrote about the design in an article published by California Fish and Game in 1956. [5,Thompson]

The use of natural resources in a way that ensures their continuing availability to future generations; the wise or intelligent use or protection of natural resources. [3,Hawthorne]

conservation easement
Purchased development right to a property. The owner continues to own the property and can continue to use it for agriculture, but can never develop it or change it to a higher density zoning. [3,Hawthorne]

The vegetation, debris, and irregularities of the land that provide concealment, sleeping, feeding, and breeding areas for wildlife. [3,Hawthorne]

cultural carrying capacity
The largest number of a wildlife species that humans will tolerate in their community. [3,Hawthorne]

Study of interrelationships between living organisms and their environment. [1,Duckworth]

Natural unit of living things and their environment linked together by energy and nutrient flow. [1,Duckworth]

Vegetation eaten by herbivores. [1,Duckworth]

Low-growing, soft-stemmed plants. [1,Duckworth]

To eat grass. [1,Duckworth]

guard hairs
Long, coarse hairs that protect undercoat. [1,Duckworth]

Food, water, shelter, and space that an animal requires. [1,Duckworth]

Group of elk during rut, usually consisting of cows, calves, and one mature bull. [1,Duckworth]

Animal that eats plants. [1,Duckworth]

home range
The area where an animal travels in the scope of normal activities. [3,Hawthorne]

A person or animal who is in search of wildlife. [3,Hawthorne]

The act of a person or animal who hunts. [3,Hawthorne]

hunting pressure
The numbers, amount, or concentration of hunters in a specific area and upon a specific animal. [3,Hawthorne]

A naturally occurring species. [3,Hawthorne]

limiting factors
Influences in the life history of any animal, population of animals, or species (e.g., food, water, shelter, space, disease, predation, climatic conditions, pollution, hunting, poaching, and accidents). [3,Hawthorne]

Lincoln-Petersen method
The Lincoln-Petersen method can be used to estimate population size if only two visits are made to the study area. This method assumes that the study population is "closed." In other words, the two visits to the study area are close enough in time so that no individuals die, are born, move into the study area (immigrate) or move out of the study area (emigrate) between visits. The model also assumes that no marks fall off animals between visits to the field site by the researcher, and that the researcher correctly records all marks. [4,Seber]

Given those conditions, estimated population size is:

N = (M C) / R


N = Estimate of total population size
M = Total number of animals captured and marked on the first visit
C = Total number of animals captured on the second visit
R = Number of animals captured on the first visit that were then recaptured on the second visit
Any of a group of animals in which the females have milk-secreting glands for feeding their offspring. [1,Duckworth]
master hunter

A participant in the Master Hunter Permit Program.

The Master Hunter Permit Program is designed to promote responsible hunting. In addition to training, the program emphasizes safe, lawful and ethical hunting priorities while upholding the highest standards. The program offers an opportunity for conscientious, committed hunters who care about the future of hunting to assume a leadership role among their peers. Through their knowledge and conduct in the field, Master Hunters play a key role in improving relationships with landowners, thus ensuring continued hunter access to private lands. [7,WDFW]

Travelling in seasonal movements. [1,Duckworth]

The raising of a crop of a single species, generally even-aged. [3,Hawthorne]

mortality rate
The death rate; usually expressed in deaths per thousand. [3,Hawthorne]

Related to birth or being born. [3,Hawthorne]

The function or position of an organism or a population within an ecological community. [3,Hawthorne]

nitrogen fixation
The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into organic compounds or to forms readily usable in biological processes. [3,Hawthorne]

An animal which eats both plant and animal materials. [3,Hawthorne]

pellet groups
Incidents of fecal material groups most commonly used as a form of measurements relating to deer and elk densities. [Erland]

A plant that lives for several years and usually produces seeds each year. [3,Hawthorne]

Someone who kills animals illegally or steals resources such as antlers. [1,Duckworth]

Animal that kills and eats other animals. [1,Duckworth]

Protection that emphasizes nonconsumptive values and uses; to keep in a perfect or unaltered condition. [3,Hawthorne]

Animals that are killed and eaten by other animals. [1,Duckworth]

resident wildlife
Animals that are residents of a specific area on a year-round basis as opposed to being migratory. [3,Hawthorne]

Portion of an environment available for use by an organism. [1,Duckworth]

Located or relating to the banks of a stream, river, or other body of water. [3,Hawthorne]

Ungulate having a multi-chambered stomach that digests plant fibers. [1,Duckworth]

Mating season for elk. [1,Duckworth]

Fecal material. [3,Hawthorne]

The sequence of an ecological community successively occupying an area from initial stage to climax. [3,Hawthorne]

Cover for natal activity or bedding and protection from weather. [3,Hawthorne]

Related to the environment, the concept of responsible caretaking; uses the premise that we do not own resources but are managers of resources and are responsible to future generations for their condition. [3,Hawthorne]

The orderly, gradual, and continuous replacement of one plant or animal by another. [3,Hawthorne]

Maintaining resources in such a way to be able to renew themselves over time or to keep in existence and supply with necessities. [3,Hawthorne]

A line for ecological measurements. [Erland]

Treaty of Point Elliot
Treaty between the United States and the tribes of the western slopes of the Cascade Range from the Canadian Border to Mount Rainier signed January 22, 1855. [2,GOIA]

By signing the treaty the tribes retained those rights that they have possessed since time immemorial. Only tribal members may exercise treaty hunting rights. Treaty rights must be exercised in accordance with tribal regulations. The courts have created a narrow exception to the general rule that state regulation of tribal treaty hunters is preempted by the treaties. This exception applies in situations where the state is regulating the fishing or hunting of a particular species in order to conserve that species. [8,WDFW]
treaty tribes
The tribes named in the Treaty of Point Elliot. These tribes include the Muckleshoot, Tulalip, Stillaguamish, Swinomish, Nooksack, Suquamish, Sauk Suiattle, Upper Skagit, and Lummi. [2,GOIA]

Truck Town
Commercial zone on the north side of and adjacent to Exit 34 on Interstate 90. [Willson]

The layer of plants growing under another higher layer of plants. [3,Hawthorne]

Mammal with hooves. [1,Duckworth]

Skin that covers antlers as they grow. [1,Duckworth]

Shawnee name for elk, meaning "white rump." [1,Duckworth]

wildlife management
Application of scientific knowledge and technical skills to protect, preserve, conserve, limit, enhance, or extend the value of wildlife and its habitat. [1,Duckworth]

yard up
To gather in a sheltered area in winter; used typically in reference to deer, moose, and so forth. [3,Hawthorne]

zero population growth
Sustaining population numbers at a fixed level so as to prevent increase. [3,Hawthorne]


1. Duckworth, Carolyn. Wild About Elk: An Educator's Guide. Bethesda, Maryland: Council for Environmental Education and the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, 1994.
2. Governor's Office of Indian Affairs. Point Elliot Treaty of 1855, January 2010.
3. Hawthorne, Josetta et al. Project Wild, K-12 Curriculum & Activity Guide. Houston, Texas: Council for Environmental Education, 2007.
4. Seber, G.A.F.. The Estimation of Animal Abundance and Related Parameters. Caldwel, New Jersey: Blackburn Press.
5. Thompson, M. J., et al. Evaluation of a Collapsible Clover Trap for Elk. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:287-290, 1989.
6. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. ALEA Volunteer Cooperative Grant Program, January 2010.
7. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Master Hunter Permit Program, January 2010.
8. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife., January 2010.